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Sterile diluent for dogs


Sterile diluent for dogs, cats, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, and horses (solutions and suspension)

Isoflurane is used to anesthetize animals. It is most often used for surgery but may be used for sedation. Isoflurane does not produce analgesia with surgery. However, when used in combination with other anesthetics such as acepromazine and butorphanol, isoflurane can produce analgesia.

When used alone, isoflurane produces muscle relaxation and analgesia.

To administer isoflurane, the animal is placed in a suitably sized anesthesia mask. (Note: See anesthetic mask for dogs, cats, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, and horses for further information.) The mask fits over the animals head.

The concentration of isoflurane can be titrated so that the proper level of anesthesia is achieved. To begin with, one does not need to make the concentration too high. As the concentration is increased, however, there are less problems with awakening from anesthesia. Once the animal awakens, it may not be re-anesthetized until the next time it is used for anesthesia.

There is an upper concentration limit for isoflurane. If it is administered for anesthesia, no more than a concentration of 3% is used. It is not advised to exceed 4%. If the concentration exceeds 3%, then there may be a higher risk of tissue damage. A lower concentration may also cause respiratory depression.

The vaporizer for isoflurane can be used to maintain anesthesia.

Dissolve isoflurane and an appropriate volume of isoflurane in oil (see below) and then use this mixture as the carrier gas for the vaporizer.

To prepare the vaporizer for use, add 10% of the volume of isoflurane in oil into the reservoir of the vaporizer. In some vaporizers, this mixture will be dispensed at the lowest setting. In other vaporizers, the mixture may be dispensed at a higher setting. There are several types of vaporizers, so the manufacturer’s instructions may need to be followed to determine how to use the vaporizer.

The concentration of isoflurane in the carrier gas must be titrated. It is important to titrate the concentration of isoflurane in the carrier gas to the appropriate level for the concentration that is being used.

The concentration of isoflurane in the carrier gas can be increased for use during anesthesia if needed. If the concentration is increased, it is important to titrate it back down to the correct concentration once anesthesia has been achieved.

When the vaporizer is not being used for anesthesia, the concentration of the mixture of isoflurane in oil should be set to the lowest level.

How does isoflurane cause anesthesia?

Isoflurane is a colorless gas that is administered via inhalation. Once isoflurane is inhaled it can act on the nervous system, providing anesthetic effect.

Inhalation of isoflurane causes anesthesia because of its ability to block the action of specific neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. The effect of isoflurane is on receptors on neurons. These receptors, also known as ligand-gated ion channels, normally work to regulate the electrical activity of neurons in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). During anesthesia, these receptors become blocked.

Some drugs that are commonly used for anesthesia act on certain types of receptors. The receptors on which isoflurane acts have been identified as receptors that are coupled to potassium (K+) channels.

Potassium (K+) channels are proteins in the membrane of nerve cells that control how much K+ is in the nerve cell. They normally help the nerve cell to keep the concentration of K+ inside the nerve cell high enough to prevent the cell from hyperpolarizing. K+ channels are also activated by neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, glutamate and glycine. By activating these K+ channels, isoflurane causes hyperpolarization of nerve cells and hence blocks the action of these neurotransmitters.

For successful inhalation anesthesia using isoflurane, it is essential that there are enough K+ channels in the membranes of neurons.

How do I know when I am sufficiently anesthetized?

While it is possible to reach the desired level of anesthesia by using a lower concentration of isoflurane, this results in a longer recovery time and is also less efficient. This is because as the concentration of isoflurane is lowered the level of anesthetic it provides is not decreased by enough to completely block the activity of the K+ channels.

How long does isoflurane last?

The duration of action of isoflurane is directly related to the concentration used. If a concentration of 2% is used, the duration of action of isoflurane can be up to about 2 hours. When 4% isoflurane is used, the duration of action can be as much as about 4 hours.

Is isoflurane good for short surgeries?

Most surgical procedures take about 20-30 minutes. During this time, the patient has to stay awake and may get uncomfortable. Therefore, they usually need to have a local anesthetic to reduce the pain during surgery. However, even a local anesthetic cannot block the sensation of isoflurane and a patient will feel the effects of isoflurane during surgery. Hence, the concentration of isoflurane used during a surgical procedure is usually lower so that the effects of the isoflurane are minimized. Isoflurane is generally used for about 20-30 minutes.

If a patient has a low level of blood pressure, is it safe to use isoflurane?

In general, when using an inhalational anesthetic, there are two issues that a physician should consider. These are: 1) to ensure the anesthetic gas does not enter the bloodstream and 2) to ensure that the patient does not stop breathing. Therefore, when it is desired to use an inhalational anesthetic, the blood oxygenation level must be taken into consideration. If the concentration of isoflurane in the blood is sufficient, the patient will not stop breathing and will be able to breathe with little difficulty. Hence, the gas will enter the blood and no extra oxygen will be needed.

Is isoflurane a safe anesthetic?

The major problem that physicians often encounter with patients who have received an inhalational anesthetic is that of the patient having trouble breathing. The problem with inhalational anesthetics is that the anesthetic cannot pass through the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, if a patient is given an inhalational anesthetic, the patient will become anesthetized, but they will still be conscious. Furthermore, if a patient does not breathe adequately during anesthesia, they will develop a low blood pressure. This is one of the main reasons why inhalational anesthetics have a shorter duration than IV sedation and anesthesia. When the level of oxygen in the blood rises, the brain will become conscious and isoflurane will pass through the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain. This can be very dangerous, as the patient may wake up. Hence, in general, patients who have received a local anesthetic should not receive a volatile anesthetic. If they must, they should be given an inhalational an


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