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Dog hind leg anatomy


Dog hind leg anatomy

Dog hind leg anatomy or dog hind leg structure helps to identify and treat injury, and assist with the correct orthopaedic management of orthopaedic disorders.

Musculoskeletal system

The canine hind limb is composed of three bones: two carpal bones, the tibia and the fibula, and the metatarsus, which consists of the first, second, third and fourth metatarsals. The patella or knee cap is a sesamoid bone embedded into the synovial membrane of the knee joint.

Each limb has a large flexor muscle mass attached to the tibia, and smaller flexor and extensor muscles attached to the metatarsus.

Each metatarsal is composed of two articular surfaces separated by a shallow groove. Each joint surface bears two articular cartilages. The lateral articular cartilage is thicker and more firmly attached to the medial articular cartilage and the surfaces of the metatarsals than the central articular cartilage. The joints between the metatarsals bear a cartilaginous disc with a fibrocartilaginous lateral extension.

The tibial and fibular condyles articulate with the trochlear ridges of the femur, and the patella rests within the condylar fossa of the femur.

The tendon of each flexor muscle inserts on the dorsal surface of the tibia.

Muscles

The flexor muscles:

Lateral superficial digital flexor muscle (LSDFL)

The Lateral superficial digital flexor muscle (LSDFL) arises from the lateral margin of the shaft of the proximal phalanx of digit 3, from the distal margin of the shaft of digit 2, and from the interosseous membrane of digit 2 to 3. The muscle passes transversely and attaches to the metatarsus at the level of the middle of the first intermetatarsal articulation.

The muscle functions to flex the proximal phalanx of digit 3 and the metatarsus.

The innervation is by the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve.

Medial superficial digital flexor muscle (MSDFL)

The Medial superficial digital flexor muscle (MSDFL) arises from the medial margin of the shaft of the proximal phalanx of digit 2, from the interosseous membrane of digit 1 to 2, and from the metatarsus, at the level of the third metatarsal articulation. It also receives contributions from the interosseous membrane of digit 1 to 2. The muscle inserts on the dorsal surface of the proximal phalanx of digit 2.

The innervation is by the deep branch of the medial plantar nerve.

Medial deep digital flexor muscle (MDDFL)

The Medial deep digital flexor muscle (MDDFL) arises from the medial margin of the shaft of the proximal phalanx of digit 2, from the interosseous membrane of digit 1 to 2, from the interosseous membrane of digit 2 to 3, and from the metatarsus, at the level of the fifth metatarsal articulation.

The muscle inserts on the dorsal surface of the proximal phalanx of digit 2.

The innervation is by the medial plantar nerve.

Lateral digital flexor muscle

The lateral digital flexor muscle (LDDFL) arises from the medial margin of the shaft of the proximal phalanx of digit 3, from the distal margin of the shaft of digit 2, from the interosseous membrane of digit 2 to 3, and from the metatarsus, at the level of the fifth metatarsal articulation. It also receives contributions from the interosseous membrane of digit 1 to 2 and from the tendon of the superficial flexor digitorum profundus of digit 2.

The muscle inserts on the lateral surface of the proximal phalanx of digit 3.

The muscle has two parts, which are connected by a slender tendon. The fleshy part, or tendon, arises from the ventral surface of the shaft of the proximal phalanx of digit 3. It inserts to the lateral side of the proximal phalanx of digit 3. The muscular part, or belly, arises from the distal margin of the shaft of the proximal phalanx of digit 3. It inserts to the distal phalanx of digit 3.

The lateral digital flexor muscle is innervated by the anterior tibial nerve and the flexor hallucis longus.

Numerous muscles pass from the lateral side of the tendon of the lateral digital flexor muscle to the dorsal side of the medial wall of the astragalus, along its entire length. Some of these muscles are the lateral plantar muscles of the tarsus, which originate from the ventral and medial sides of the sesamoids and insert on the medial plantar surface of the distal phalanx of digit 1. A small portion of the tendon of the lateral digital flexor muscle inserts on the ventral surface of the dorsopalmar edge of the central process of the astragalus.

This muscle is innervated by the dorsalis digital branch of the posterior tibial nerve.

Many muscles pass from the medial side of the tendon of the lateral digital flexor muscle to the medial side of the fibrous capsule, along the distal part of the astragalus. These muscles originate from the distal side of the central process of the astragalus and insert to the central process, or dorsal surface.

These muscles include the sesamoid muscles, which include the plantar sesamoids, the intersesamoid muscles, and the dorsal sesamoids.

The plantar sesamoids, or plantar sesamoid bones, are two small bones located in the center of the distal phalanges of digits 2 and 3. They are attached to the plantar surface of the metatarsals, and to each other, by ligaments. The intersesamoids, or intersesamoid bones, are two small bones located in the center of the distal phalanges of digits 1 and 3. They are attached to the plantar surface of the metatarsals, and to each other, by ligaments. The dorsal sesamoids, or dorsal sesamoid bones, are two small bones located on the dorsal side of the metatarsal. They are attached to the plantar side of the metatarsals.

The sesamoids help to stabilize the foot and prevent the foot from slipping, by limiting the mobility of the foot, through their tight connection to the metatarsals.

The plantar and dorsal sesamoids are believed to develop in embryos as two centers of ossification. The two bones fuse at approximately the time of birth, when the baby is crawling. In some cases, the plantar and dorsal sesamoids may form by separate centers of ossification, and then fuse later.

In the human, some of the smaller sesamoids may not have ossified. These are known as "sesamoids," or meso-sesamoids, because they are between the metatarsals, and metatarsophalangeal, or "knee" sesamoids, because they are between the proximal metatarsal and the first phalanx.

The plantar sesamoids and the intersesamoids have


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