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Rain rot in dogs

Rain rot in dogs


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Rain rot in dogs is the most common cause of gastrointestinal diseases and it is the most common disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract in dogs ([@bibr2-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1]). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease. There are three types of RA: classic, polyarticular, and seronegative ([@bibr13-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1]). The primary symptom of RA is pain and it may be accompanied by arthritis, inflammation, and swelling of peripheral joints ([@bibr12-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1]). The most common locations of the joint involvement in RA are metacarpophalangeal, carpal, tarsal, stifle, hock, and shoulder ([@bibr12-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1]). There is a strong genetic and environmental predisposition for RA ([@bibr8-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1], [@bibr13-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1], [@bibr12-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1], [@bibr16-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1]). Studies have shown that genetic factors are important for the development of RA, but environmental factors such as diet and exercise also play a significant role ([@bibr8-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1]).

The pathogenesis of RA is multifactorial and includes both genetic and environmental factors ([@bibr8-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1], [@bibr11-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1]). One of the most important environmental factors is diet. Recent findings have shown that diet can be a predisposing factor for the development of RA and that changes in dietary components can trigger or influence the development of the disease. There is a large body of evidence showing that the type of diet can lead to changes in gut microbiota, which can in turn lead to changes in the immune system ([@bibr4-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1], [@bibr7-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1]). In the past few years, a wide range of diet-induced changes has been demonstrated in the composition of gut microbiota and the immune system, which suggests that diet can be a predisposing factor for RA ([@bibr3-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1], [@bibr9-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1], [@bibr17-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1], [@bibr18-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1]).

Dogs are affected by different types of RA ([@bibr15-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1]). In previous studies, dogs with RA were fed diets that were enriched with fish and meat and it was reported that the disease was alleviated by feeding a fish-free diet ([@bibr14-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1], [@bibr15-2046-3758.77.BJR-2018-0043.R1]). However, no studies have been published that have investigated the effect of the type of diet on the progression of RA in dogs. In the current study, we have examined the effects of feeding a commercial diet and a diet that was free of fish and meat on the progression of RA in dogs. We also assessed the effect of the type of diet on the concentrations of IgG2.

Materials and Methods {#section_v3}

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Experimental Design {#section_v4}

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The study was conducted at the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Hannover, Germany. Twenty-six dogs with RA were included in this study. The dogs were classified into four groups (six dogs in each group) according to the type of diet that they were fed. In group 1, dogs were fed a commercially available fish and meat-enriched diet (Gelber Fisch, Wurm, Germany) and in group 2, dogs were fed a commercial fish- and meat-free diet (Rütter Fisch, Berlin, Germany). The commercial diet had been purchased from a pet shop. In group 3, dogs were fed a commercial fish- and meat-free diet (Rütter Fisch, Berlin, Germany) and in group 4, dogs were fed the commercial fish and meat-enriched diet (Gelber Fisch, Wurm, Germany). In all cases, dogs were fed twice daily and the type of diet was given for six months, followed by a three-month-long feeding period of the other type of diet.

The dogs were examined by the same veterinarian and physical and orthopaedic examinations were performed. The following data were recorded for all dogs: age, body weight, and duration of disease. For the dogs of group 1, body weight, body condition score (1 = emaciated, 5 = obese), and the body weight loss in the previous six months were recorded. Dogs were excluded from the study if they had a history of surgery, had received antibiotics or immunosuppressive drugs, had received a diet that was different from the one given in the


Watch the video: Rain rot. Rain scald! videos (July 2022).


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