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Dog lymph node locations

Dog lymph node locations


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Dog lymph node locations {#Sec7}

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The lymph node distribution in dogs was observed in the left and right thoracic regions, the cervical and the pelvic region, and the abdominal and inguinal region. Lymph nodes were distributed as in previous reports (Oberli and Bock[@CR26], Niewold et al[@CR22], Tarnowski et al[@CR29], Reiser et al[@CR27]). The lymph node distribution observed in the inguinal and femoral regions included the cisterna chyli, the right and left superficial inguinal nodes, the deep inguinal nodes, and the popliteal nodes. The iliac lymph nodes were also observed and included the iliac and sacral nodes. The abdominal lymph nodes included the celiac, gastric, ileocecal, pericolic, gastrohepatic, hepatoduodenal, coeliac, common hepatic, caudal vena cava, and mesenteric nodes. The abdominal lymph nodes were divided into two groups: retroperitoneal lymph nodes (cranial mesenteric, celiac, mesoileal, and ileocolic nodes) and non-retroperitoneal nodes (colic, gastric, hepatoduodenal, caudal vena cava, and mesenteric nodes). The pelvic lymph nodes included the internal iliac, external iliac, superficial inguinal, preaortic, common iliac, and presacral lymph nodes. The popliteal lymph nodes included the dorsal, ventral, and common (intermediate) superficial, popliteal, medial, and lateral saphenous, and saphenous lymph nodes. The thoracic lymph nodes included the left and right brachiocephalic, supraclavicular, and paratracheal lymph nodes. The internal and external thoracic lymph nodes included the internal thoracic, mediastinal, and thymic lymph nodes. The external thoracic lymph nodes included the interlobar and subcarinal lymph nodes. All metastatic lymph nodes were recorded as their total volume as well as the individual volume of each metastatic node. The location of the metastatic lymph nodes was also evaluated. All of the lymph nodes were collected from different surgical samples.

Statistical Analysis

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Data are expressed as the median with interquartile range (IQR) for the continuous variables and as percentages for the categorical variables. We calculated the incidence of metastatic lymph nodes according to T stage for every group, and used the difference in the incidence of metastatic lymph nodes among groups as a reference. Moreover, the incidence of metastatic lymph nodes in each group was compared using the Chi-square test. The correlation between the total number of metastatic lymph nodes and each parameter was analyzed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationships between the total number of metastatic lymph nodes and the clinicopathological parameters. All statistical analyses were performed with PASW Statistics software (version 20, SPSS, Chicago, IL, United States). Differences were considered to be statistically significant when the p-value was less than 0.05.

RESULTS

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In this study, we included 462 patients, among which 431 were included in the analysis. Fifteen patients were excluded from the analysis due to missing pathologic diagnosis or incomplete lymph node metastasis status. The clinical features of the study population are summarized in Table [1](#T1){ref-type="table"}. A total of 3,077 lymph nodes were collected from 431 patients. The median number of dissected lymph nodes was 11 per patient (IQR, 10 to 12) and 2.5 per patient for the right-side and left-side groups. The median number of lymph nodes positive for metastasis was 10 (IQR, 9 to 11) and 2.4 per patient for the right-side and left-side groups. Among the 3,077 lymph nodes, 1,842 (60.7%) were positive for metastasis.

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Baseline Characteristics of 431 Patients with UCC

**Characteristic**


Watch the video: Where are my dogs lymph nodes?? (July 2022).


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