There are two types of the Dachshund, or Doxie: standard size and miniature size, and there are three variations: short-haired, wire-haired and long-haired. Although their coats can get wavy and sometimes reach the ground, they are in fact only about an inch longer than those of a short-haired.
Dachshunds were originally bred in Germany during the 1500s to hunt badgers. The German name, Dachshund, translates to "badger-dog." In order to get into the badger burrows, the dog's legs needed to be short. By the 1800s, the dog was in more demand for a pet than for hunting. The original Doxie was smooth-haired. The long-haired version was developed in the 1700s, and last came the wire-haired, according to the American Kennel Club.
Long-haired Dachshunds are not any larger or heavier than smooth-haired or wire-haired Dachshunds. The standard-size long-haired Dachshund averages 8 1/2 inches tall from the ground to the shoulder, while the miniature averages only 5 1/2 inches tall. The standard long-haired Doxie weighs anywhere from 12 to 32 pounds, while the miniature long-haired only tips the scales at 11 pounds or less, according to "The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds."
Long-haired Doxies need to be groomed and checked for fleas more often than the other Doxie coat types. The long hair can tangle to the point where dirty hair may infect the skin. Fleas may also hide in the tangles where they cannot be seen. Long-haired Dachshunds should be brushed every day after exercise to get out any dirt or grass, but a throughout combing is needed two or three times a week, according to "The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds."
All Dachshunds, no matter what their size or coat length, are prone to deafness, knee problems due to their short legs, diabetes if they are allowed to get overweight and intervertebral disk disease (IVDD.) The short legs and short rib cage do not help support the long spine, so IVDD can set in and cause partial paralysis. Long-haireds in particular are prone to a blindness disorder called progressive renal atrophy.
Long-haired Dachshunds have the reputation of being more timid and less prone to bark than the other types, according to "The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds." However, each Doxie is different, and if encouraged to bark a lot, any Doxie can become a barker.