The dog fur of our four-legged pets requires human care because they do not move through bushes and undergrowth like their ancestors, the wolves. The branches and leaves care for and comb through the wolf skin, which consists of so-called stick hair. Without grooming, for example, the fur of rough-haired domestic dog breeds mattes faster and, in the worst case, must be shaved completely in an emergency shave. There are also differences when changing fur between the different hair structures of the dog breeds.
A long, thick undercoat is characteristic of felt hair. As the name suggests, this fur mattes very quickly and forms cords that are reminiscent of dreadlocks. The cords only start a few centimeters above the skin and must be thinned out regularly with the thinning scissors to avoid a later emergency cut if they can no longer be untangled. Then carefully pull the hair apart. In return, dogs with felt hair rarely have skin problems. Typical felt hair dogs are the Puli and the Komondor.
Long hair can have long outer hair with little or a lot of undercoat. The long-haired dog breeds Setter, Spaniel or the German longhair have little undercoat. Dog breeds that have long hair with a lot of undercoat are, for example, bobtails or Tibetan terriers. This dog fur structure is particularly demanding when it comes to grooming. The longhair fur can easily knot or matt, especially in times of change of fur.
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In frizzy dog fur, all hair is the same length. The proportion of undercoat is significantly higher than that of the outer coat. Sometimes the hair can become very long despite the change of fur. Regular stoking or cutting is advisable here. Examples of dog breeds with frizzy fur are poodles or Bedlington terriers.
There are dogs with very short and mostly smooth fur. This usually consists of only one layer of hair, so that the top hair changes mostly year-round. Short smooth hair is characterized by firm, short outer hair. The care of short hair is easy, once a week you can comb it with a soft brush, and more often when changing fur.
Wire hair is very maintenance-intensive. Dead, loose hair usually does not fall out of the dog's fur on its own, but must be removed by hand, for example with the help of a brush. This fur structure has two layers, the top hair grows in a growth cycle of six months. Typical dog breeds with wire-hair are the schnauzer and of course the wire-haired dachshund.